Parental Alienation by Family, Friends and Neighbours
Parental Alienation can be directly perpetrated by family members other than a parent. Grandparents, especially, may have a desire or obsession to gain possession of their grandchild, or reclaim control over their own child. This can be as a result of they themselves suffering Parental Alienation in childhood.
Family, friends and neighbours may, with honourable intentions, try and help someone they believe is suffering from an abusive relationship. They may provide emotional support, physical protection, and even spurn the innocent parent, without realising that they are being manipulated by the abuser and facilitating the Parental Alienation.